A simple oral hygiene routine is not sufficient for treating periodontitis.
Periodontology deals with all diseases of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. Its primary focus is on chronic inflammatory disease known as periodontitis, caused by bacterial plaque, which can lead to significant issues in adult patients. Periodontitis is always preceded by superficial gum inflammation, noticeable to the patient through occasional gum bleeding, and can be resolved with good oral hygiene practices.
As bacterial biofilm accumulates, the gums may further swell, forming periodontal pockets that can be measured with a probe. Within these pockets, inflammation spreads to the bone and supporting structures of the tooth, leading to bone loss. Since this process is often painless, problems typically arise only when teeth become loose due to advanced loss of the supporting structures.
Therefore, a periodontal baseline examination should be conducted during a dental check-up, and treatment options should be discussed.
Patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, autoimmune disorders, or chronic inflammatory diseases benefit significantly from successful periodontal treatment. Extensive periodontitis strongly affects the immune system and exacerbates inflammation in other areas of the body. Such disease correlations have been proven in clinical studies.
Guideline-compliant periodontal therapy consists of four stages, with progression to the next stage only after successful completion of the previous one.
In the first stage, a medical analysis is conducted considering individual medical history and medications, and consultation with other specialists may be necessary. This is followed by professional teeth cleaning, and optimal oral hygiene is achieved in collaboration with the patient.
The second stage involves measuring pocket depths, diagnosis using X-rays, and removing biofilm from affected areas through deep cleaning. The cleaning is painless and may involve local anesthesia; in specific cases, it can be supported with antibiotics. The treatment result is evaluated after a two-month resting period.
Surgical intervention, the third stage, is always optional and may be considered for remaining individual tooth pockets. The goal is to establish hygienic anatomical conditions. Surgical procedures can address anatomical issues or even regenerate supporting tissue structures.
The maintenance stage ensures the long-term stability of the treatment outcome, preventing a recurrence of periodontitis. An individual recall interval is established, allowing for early intervention in case of re-inflamed tooth pockets. This stage is essential for sustained therapy success with tooth preservation and can be combined with routine dental check-ups.